New Research Tools to Develop Drugs against HIV

Although the COVID-19 pandemic has engulfed public consciousness, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) still represents a serious global threat.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS and is one of the most infectious diseases, with millions of people infected each year and a high mortality rate. Thus, great effort is still being invested in understanding HIV and the >$30.5 billion HIV drug market continues to grow.

In recent decades anti-retroviral treatment has significantly increased the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients, however, long-term therapy is still affected by drug resistance mutations, the high genetic diversity of the virus and unwanted side-effects. To overcome these obstacles, recently identified targets to inhibit the HIV life cycle are being studied which could enable development of improved drugs and therapies.

The HIV virus particle
Image source: AIDSinfo/DHHS: https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/
Schematic description of the mechanism of the four classes of currently available antiviral drugs against HIV
Image source: Wikimedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HIV-drug-classes.svg

Background

HIV proteases (HIV-1 & HIV-2 PR) represent a potential target to block HIV replication. They are retroviral/virus-encoded proteolytic aspartyl proteases and essential for the HIV life cycle. HIV infection results in synthesis of several polyproteins in the host cell, including HIV proteases required for post-translational cleavage of certain precursor polyproteins into the functional products needed for viral assembly. Without this process, HIV virions remain uninfectious.

HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases (HIV-PR1 and HIV-PR2) not only differ in their specificity for peptide substrates (i.e. the cleavage site sequences in the viral precursors) but also with regard to their inhibitors. Sequence differences between HIV-PR1 and 2 are likely responsible for differing efficacy of inhibitors, and the resistance of HIV to many current drugs.

The essential role HIV proteases play in HIV replication has made them a major target for drug therapy and several protease inhibitors have already been licensed for HIV therapy as antiviral drugs. These HIV protease inhibitors specifically bind to the active site and block the enzyme’s activity. As a consequence, viral particles lacking active proteases are not able to mature into infectious virions.

PromoCell offers a range of products to study HIV replication and to develop effective therapies to fight AIDS. As HIV proteases are potent and promising therapeutic targets, we provide HIV-1 & HIV-2 Protease Activity Assay and Inhibitor Screening Kits as well as a range of biochemicals that can also be used as HIV Protease Inhibitors, e.g. as positive controls in assays.

We also supply CD4 recombinant protein and a choice of antibodies (and the respective blocking peptides) directed against HIV glycoproteins, e.g. the virus surface proteins gp41 & gp120 which enable study of viral cell entry via attachment to CD4.

Specific Protease Inhibitors prevent new, immature HIV from becoming a mature virus that can infect other CD4 cells
Image source: AIDSinfo/DHHS: https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/

Product List

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Related Assays

PK-CA577-K825 HIV-1 Protease Activity Assay Kit 100 assays
PK-CA577-K826 HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor Screening Kit 100 assays
PK-CA577-K845 HIV-2 Protease Activity Assay Kit 100 assays

 

HIV Related Antibodies & Blocking Peptides

PK-AB718-4641 HIV-Igp120 (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-4641P HIV-Igp120 (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-4777 gp120 (IN) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-4777P gp120 (IN) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB913-151 HIV-Igp120 antibody (mAb) 500 µg
PK-AB913-210 HIV-Igp120 antibody (pAb) 0.1 ml
PK-AB718-7313 HIV-1 p24 antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB913-152 HIV-Igp24 antibody (mAb) 500 µg
PK-AB718-7313 HIV-1 p24 antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB913-153 HIV-IIgp39 antibody (mAb) 500 µg
PK-AB913-161 HIV-IIgp39 antibody (pAb) 1 ml
PK-AB913-159 HIV-Igp41 antibody (mAb) 500 µg
PK-AB913-160 HIV-Igp41 antibody (pAb) 1 ml
PK-AB718-2093 CX3CR1 / V28 (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2093P CX3CR1 (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-2201 CX3CR1 / V28 (EL) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2201P CX3CR1 (EL) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-1009 CXCR4 (NT) antibody (pAb) PK-AB718-1009
PK-AB718-1009P CXCR4 (NT) peptide PK-AB718-1009P
PK-AB718-1012 CXCR4 (EL) antibody (pAb) PK-AB718-1012
PK-AB718-1012P CXCR4 (EL) peptide PK-AB718-1012P
PK-AB718-4443 CXCR4-Lo antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-4443P CXCR4-Lo peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-1105 CCR3 (CT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-1105P CCR3 (CT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-1109 CCR3 (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-1109P CCR3 (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-1112 CCR5 (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-1112P CCR5 (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-2097 CCR8 (EL) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2097P CCR8 (EL) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB577-5210 CCR10 antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2101 GPR15 / BOB (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2101P GPR15 (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-2347 DC-SIGN (CT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2347P DC-SIGN (CT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-2349 DC-SIGN (ED) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-2349P DC-SIGN (ED) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-1170 Bonzo / STRL33 (CT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-3257 APOBEC3G (NT) antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-3257P APOBEC3G (NT) peptide 50 µg
PK-AB718-7223 CCNT1 antibody (pAb) 100 µg
PK-AB718-7223P CCNT1 peptide 50 µg
PK-AB913-145 CD4 antibody (mAb) 500 µg
PK-AB913-165 CD4 antibody (mAb) 500 µg

 

HIV Related Recombinant Cell Surface Proteins

C-60056 CD4, human, recombinant 10 µg
C-60083 CD4 (125-202 aa), human, recombinant 20 µg
C-60084 CD4 (203-317 aa), human, recombinant 20 µg
C-63324 CD14, human, recombinant (CHO) 50 µg
C-63325 CD14, human, recombinant (HEK) 50 µg

 

Biochemicals (HIV Protease Inhibitors, Anti-HIV Compounds)*

PK-CA577-1943-5, -25 AMI-1 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-B2141-5, -25 Amprenavir 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-B1901-5, -25 Atazanavir 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-1552-25, -100 Betulinic acid 25 mg, 100 mg
PK-CA577-2293-10, -50 Castanospermine 10 mg, 50 mg
PK-CA577-B3042-10, -50 Cepharanthine 10 mg, 50 mg
PK-CA577-9474-5, -25 Cobicistat 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-2792-5, -25 Elacridar 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-2241-50, -250 Lopinavir 50 mg, 250 mg
PK-CA577-B3056-1, -5 Miglustat (hydrochloride) 1 mg, 5 mg
PK-CA577-B2142-5, -25 Nefinavir (mesylate hydrate) 5 mg, 25 mg
PK-CA577-B2140-10, -50 Ritonavir 10 mg, 50 mg
PK-CA577-B1999-10, -50 Saquinavir (mesylate) 10 mg, 50 mg

*Soon available on our website, please contact us for more information

 

Cells & Media

C-12909 Human CD14+ Monocytes from Peripheral
Blood (hMoCD14+-PB), single donor
10 million cells
C-12921 Human CD34+ Progenitor Cells from Cord Blood (hCD34+-CB), single donor 100,000 cells
C-28021 Hematopoietic Progenitor Expansion Medium DXF 500 ml
C-39890 Cytokine Mix E for HPC-Expansion Medium DXF 1 Mix for 100 ml
C-12907 Human Mononuclear Cells from Peripheral Blood (hMNC-PB), single donor, ultra-pure 25 million cells
C-12901 Human Mononuclear Cells from Cord Blood (hMNC-CB), single donor, ultra-pure 25 million cells
C-28030 Mononuclear Cell Medium (ready-to-use) 500 ml
C-12980 Human Pericytes from Placenta (hPC-PL) 500,000 cells
C-28050 DC Generation Medium (ready-to-use) 250 ml
C-28052 DC Generation Medium DXF (ready-to-use, serum-free) 250 ml
C-12914, C-12916 Human M1 Macrophages (GM-CSF) monocyte-derived 1.5 million cells,
5 million cells
C-12915, C-12917 Human M2 Macrophages (M-CSF) monocyte-derived 1.5 million cells,
5 million cells
C-28055 M1-Macrophage Generation Medium DXF (ready-to-use) 250 ml
C-28056 M2-Macrophage Generation Medium DXF 250 ml
C-28057 Macrophage Base Medium DXF 250 ml
C-41330 Macrophage Detachment Solution DXF 250 ml
PK-CT-2000-MAC-10, -50 PromoFectin-Macrophage Transfection Reagent 100 µl, 500 µl

Related Products

Moreover, we supply a huge variety of Cytokines & Growth Factors as well as the corresponding ELISAs & Antibodies for Immunology/Innate Immunity (e.g. to detect cytokine storm and acute inflammation).

In addition, PromoCell provides a wide range of assays to study Cell Health & Viability , Oxidative Stress, Cell Metabolism & Signaling and Cell Migration & Phagocytosis.

Please visit also our page summarizing our immunology research tools.

Please note: All products are for research use only and not for in vitro-diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

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